Staying Close and Looking Back: An Examination of Desistance in a Maryland Community Corrections Population Project
Some evidence suggests that drug testing in conjunction with treatment referrals and swift consistent sanctions may be effective. An experimental evaluation of Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) pretrial program between 2014 and 2016 in Hawaii randomly assigned released defendants to either standard pretrial services or to the HOPE pretrial treatment program which includes both consistent sanctions for violations as well as treatment referrals for those who need them. Defendants in the HOPE group had 21 to 30 percent lower likelihood of failing a drug test, and a 40 percent lower rate of arrest for a new offense (Davidson, King, Ludwig, Raphael, 2019). However, HOPE participants were also more likely to experience a temporary revocation of supervision, likely due to the sanctions utilized by the program.