In Rethinking Reentry
A review of the existing literature, when applying the behavioral intervention developmental process from Onken and colleagues, may explain why reentry and correctional studies do not generate positive outcomes.
In Hawaii’s Honest Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) program and relevant replication studies, the emphasis is on swift, certain, and fair application of sanctions to deter drug use and criminal behavior. But the basic science supports the use of positive incentives as being more effective in changing behavior than negative reinforcements. And the ratio of incentives to sanctions is important to achieve better outcomes. That is, the basic science was not used in designing the HOPE model, and therefore this can account for the potential null findings.