Predicting Drug Court Graduation: Examining the Role of Individual and Programmatic Characteristics
Considering the correlational nature of this study, readers should consider our findings of negative associations between jail and monetary fine sanctions and drug court graduation in light of existing evidence. A recent multisite randomized controlled trial indicated that “swift, certain, and fair” (SCF) sanctions significantly reduced substance use for individuals under criminal justice supervision (Humphreys & Kilmer, 2020) but produced no overall effects on recidivism (Lattimore et al., 2016). Several less rigorous studies also suggested that SCF sanctions reduce substance use among justice-involved individuals with SUDs (see for example, Grommon et al., 2013; Hawken & Kleiman, 2009; Kunkel & White, 2013; Shannon et al., 2015). The effect of SCF sanctions on recidivism is less well-established, with some studies showing positive effects and others indicating null effects (Swift Certain Fair Resource Center, 2018, March 16). Nonetheless, participants in our sample that received jail and monetary fine sanctions graduated at lower rates, which may indicate an appropriate timepoint for additional intervention (i.e., after receiving jail/monetary fine sanctions). Thus, drug court staff and researchers should explore ways to increase the likelihood of graduation among participants who receive jail and monetary fine sanctions.