Substance abuse treatment
A large share of jail and prison inmates have histories of substance abuse, which suggests that helping this population manage addictions may reduce criminal activity. Unfortunately there is currently limited evidence on the effectiveness of programs with this goal. The most-studied interventions in this category are modeled after the HOPE program, applying swift, certain, and fair sanctions to individuals who are court-ordered to remain sober. Early evaluations of this program were promising, but more recent replications revealed smaller or no impacts. Additional evaluation will be required to determine when and for whom HOPE-style programs can be effective.
Swift, certain, and fair sanctions
Sobriety is often a condition of probation and parole, particularly if the original offense was related to substance abuse. Often, offenders fail drug tests but are not punished consistently, and when they are (occasionally) punished, the penalty is severe (e.g. revocation of parole). A variety of new programs